Toxic Masculinity In Hip Hop Culture

Barack Obama said that the people were looking at him like, “I guess respecting you means I’m going to have to shoot.” You can be made to apologize. It’s not your fault if I disrespect you. Obama discussed toxic masculinity within the hip-hop culture during a town hall in February 2019 called My Brother’s Keeper. In hip hop, he mentions violence as a way that men should not gain respect. Hip-hop music demonstrates toxic masculinity in the lyrics and behaviors of artists. It’s time for society to take a stand against it and change the attitudes of hip hop artists. This will help the culture detoxify toxic masculinity. It is important to understand what toxic masculinity looks like and how you can stop it.

Terry Kupers wrote an “Toxic Maculinity As a Barrier to Treatment of Mental Health in Prison”. The article talks about gender issues and their connection to the resistance against mental health care. Kupers defines “toxic masculinity” as a “constellation of socially regressive traits of men that promote dominance, the devaluation and violence against women”. Hip hop has a toxic masculinity problem that has affected men’s perceptions of what it is to be a male. Hip-hop music in particular has exhibited toxic male behavior through its lyrics. This issue must be taken very seriously. Hip-hop music was born in 1973 to give men a rhythmic way to express themselves. Since 1973, hip-hop has gained in popularity. Nielsen Soundscan records the music sales across the United States. In 2017, hip-hop surpassed rock in popularity. The only issue with hip hop today is its toxic masculinity. Barack Obama said in his introduction that hip-hop artists use violence to intimidate them and make them more manly. Hip-hop artist use their power and toxic lyrics to harm women. Gretchen Cundiff talks about the influence hip-hop has on the audience and how they react to misogynistic songs. Cundiff discusses the Billboard “Hot 100”, a list of top songs that was released at the end of each year. The songs ranged from 2000 to 2010. She discusses a twenty-song list with lyrics that depict toxic masculinity. She mentions the song, “Every Girl,” by Young Money. Young Money has five members. Lil Wayne leads the group. The song “Every Girl” talks about the Young Money members wanting to have sex every girl on the planet and what a great pleasure it would be. Cundiff quotes Lil Wayne saying “Open up the legs and filet mignon the pussy. Lil Wayne uses a slang term to describe a girl in the first part of this lyric. In the lyric, he says he wants her to be his. This is a sign of male dominance. These lyrics display toxic masculinity by showing men they can dominate women and that women are just for pleasure. This view encourages male dominance and gives the impression that it will make them feel more masculine. Hip-hop’s toxic masculinity represents real power and gives artists the feeling that they have the power to do anything they want. There are also spectators and bystanders that don’t take any action, but know what is happening. They choose to ignore it. It makes it easier to get away with doing whatever the artist wants. Robert Kelly, the famous R&B and hip-hop artist has recently been accused of criminal sex abuse. Kelly has been cleared of all sexual accusations, including those involving child sex and pornography. He was never charged because he paid his accusers money. Kelly took advantage of his fame as an artist to exploit young girls. Recent documentary “Surviving R Kelly”, focuses on young women who speak out against the sexual abuse Kelly has perpetrated. In the film, Kelly’s victims explain how Kelly was able get away for so long with his illegal activities. Caroline Framke, Variety magazine’s television critic, quoted one Kelly’s survivors in her article “TV Review “Surviving R Kelly”. According to that quote, Kelly had the support of bystanders to enable him to carry out his toxic behaviors and pedophilia. Kelly was a well-known artist, and there were probably people who wanted to expose him. However, because Kelly was popular, they decided to not try to ruin his reputation. Robert Kelly is an example of hip-hop artists who can perform toxic acts for long periods of time. Hip hop is known for using toxic lyrics in the past to create an incorrect masculinity. Bystander influence is the best way to change hip-hop music. Bystanders are those who react positively in the face of a negative situation. Bystanders who are weak in hip-hop encourage artists to continue toxic acts and toxic lyrics, because no one speaks up. Jackson Katz is an educator and gender violence prevention specialist who gave a Ted Talk titled “Violence towards women – it’s a man’s issue”. In this talk, Katz explains that violence against woman is not a women’s problem, but a male issue, as men are the ones responsible for violent behavior. Katz stated “we need more brave men who will stand up for women and speak out against toxic masculinity.” He also said, “we must stop allowing men to be bystanders. They need to step up and call out what men are doing to women.” Lecrae Moore, a rapper who is known to be toxic in today’s hip-hop culture, aims to change that. In his Ted Talk on “Heroes and Villains. Is Hip Hop a Cure or Cancer?” Moore explained that hip-hop artists entertain by devaluing women and making hip-hop seem like a villain. Moore refers specifically to the real meaning of hip-hop by stating, “hip-hop is not a pawn for villainy to make money.” It can tell the tale of how the world got to where it is today, and how the beginnings were. It can be used by bystanders to tell the history of how the dark past led to the bright future. He wants hip-hop music to be free of toxic ideas. This can only happen if everyone takes the bystander’s approach. Barack Obama says that the notion that one’s ability to dominate or put down another person is what defines a man, is outdated. He explains that toxic behaviors, such as dominating, should not define a man. Hip hop, the most popular form of music in America, is a great example of toxic maleness. Hip-hop artists often use demeaning words about women and violence to make themselves feel intimidated. Lil Wayne & R Kelly show that hip hop is full of toxic lyrics. Being powerful can also help men to get away from harmful behaviors. Lecrae Moor and Barack Obama are trying to change the way hip hop artists act and sing. Bystander intervention is a way to help society change its view of toxic masculinity. It helps people become more aware and alert about toxic behavior. More people speaking out against toxic masculinity will lead to a positive change in the hip-hop community.

Daniel Hale Williams – One Of The Milestone Leaders Of 1800s Era

Many events took place in the 1800s which affected African Americans and made it hard for them to do many things. African Americans being able to regain their rights in 1865 helped reduce tensions. Daniel Hale Williams was the first African American surgeon to successfully perform a pericardium surgery in Chicago.

Daniel Hale Williams inspired many students by showing them how to have a successful future no matter where they come from. Williams, who was a young boy when he moved to the US, was forced to do so by a number of circumstances. Daniel’s father was a barber who taught him the art of barbering. His father’s last lesson to his siblings and Daniel was that education is the key to a successful life. Daniel was sent by his father to live at a friend of the family who had a shoemaking school. He was only 10 when he moved in. Daniel was 15 when he ran to the train station to escape shoe-making. A friend of his who worked at the station gave him a free ticket to visit his mom in Illinois. Daniel’s mother, his two sisters, and their cousins were all living at the house of one of Daniel’s cousins when he got to Rockford in Illinois. Williams was able to find a high-school in Rockford that was open a couple of months each year. After school, Williams practiced barbering while he was in class.

Williams became interested in medicine at 22. Around 1878. Williams was determined to work because he learned that Dr. Henry Palmer, the most renowned doctor in Wisconsin, was his employer. Daniel was hired and assigned simple office duties such as cleaning the office, organizing it, and helping with driving patients home. Williams, when not working with Dr. Henry Palmer or his patients in his office, would read medical textbooks to try and learn. Dr. Henry Palmer informed Williams and two of his other apprentices about the top medical school in Illinois, Chicago Medical School. Williams, like his other competitors, wanted to attend Chicago Medical School. But he did have a lack of money. Williams wrote a letter to family members and friends. They replied by saying that unfortunately they couldn’t assist him in his financial difficulties.

New York’s stock market also crashed at this time, causing a deflation and depression. Williams’ family and those of lower classes or people of color were most affected by this. Williams sent a second letter to his friend, asking for more money. Harry Anderson gladly lent Daniel money to pay his first two year of medical school.

Daniel moved from Chicago. He asked an old family friend to let him live in her home and she agreed. She also let Williams work for the family friend, taking care of their horses and carriages to save money. Williams was able to pay for both his school and room with the money he earned from these side jobs. William needed money for his final year of medical college. Price, his brother, helped him complete his third year. Daniel Williams completed medical school when he was 27 years old. Williams was able to treat not only black, but also White patients after graduating from medical school. Daniel was a man who loved his job. This passion was shown by him cleaning the room of his patients to reduce any possible infection. He was unable to work at any hospital. Williams made a name in the medical world after he was chosen to teach anatomy and surgery skills to some of the college’s students in 1884.

Williams worked in Freedmen’s for a while. He was adamant that all staff be of the same race and learn the exact same medical methods and procedures as he. The National Medical Association was founded a year later. The American Medical Association would not accept African Americans as doctors or members.

Daniel created the Provident Hospital Association to ensure that all people could receive medical treatment and be seen by doctors. This was in contrast to other hospitals who separated African Americans. Daniels providednt hospital let people donate money to gain access to membership. Sunday School kids and rich people alike contributed to the cause. The hospital was faced with one of the greatest challenges during the Depression era when it did not have enough money to meet its basic needs.

Services and bedding are examples. Fredrick Doug, Williams cousin and a major funder of the hospital, helped out later. Williams rewarded them with chicken suppers & dances for their efforts. The money was used to refurbish the abandoned hospital they had bought. The building had a total of 12 beds. It was operated by seven different African-American groups, including Williams’ elitist group of doctors and nurses.

Daniel received a patient with a chest stab injury one day. Daniel learned that the patient’s name was Cornish James and that he had been involved in a fight at a bar. Daniel could see that the stab wound he had was very bad. Any doctor would have said that he was going to die soon if a doctor opened him up. The doctors were aware of the delicate nature of the procedure, and that if James had been opened up, it would have resulted in infection, or possibly a mess inside. Daniel Williams did not rush James into the operating room. He made sure to sterilize the area before and after. Daniel was bold in his decision to save or kill a person. William would have suffered a terrible fall if Mr. Cornish had died or been successfully saved. In the 20th century, an xray could not detect a ruptured heart pericardium due to a severe trauma such as a serious stab. Williams did not have x-rays, cat scans, fancy medicine, or other tools to help him. He went into the surgery blind. The pericardium sac was torn when he cut Jame’s chest. The pericardium sac acts as a cushion for the heart and helps to protect it. Williams closed up his chest and stitched together the tear. Williams performed another minor operation to drain excess fluid in James Cornish’s chest sac. After a little over two months, Williams sent James Cornish home after he had seen that he was doing well. Daniel H Williams became the first African American doctor to successfully perform a pericardium procedure on July 9th, 1893.

Back then, I could have found out not just who Daniel Hale Williams but why. I would have liked to see his most significant accomplishments and experience his youthful years. I realized that regardless of where you’re from or what you’ve experienced, whether it be age, race, sex etc., you can make a difference if you believe in a goal. Who has the answer? One day, I might be the best in my field.

Cultural Relativism And Human Rights: Achieving Understanding

Table of Contents

Cultural Relativism versus International Human Rights

Albinism: The persecution of Albinism

The Argument for Cultural Relativism and Tolerance

The limits of tolerance

There are several possible solutions

In conclusion,

“We need to respect other cultures’ different values, including if it means they reject the human rights.”

In the opening section of this article, I will examine the long-running dispute between cultural relativism and universality of human right by examining the treatment of albinos in United Republic of Tanzania. Then, I will describe how the Tanzanian Government attempted to resolve this dilemma between human rights and cultural relativism in the above case. I will then analyze the cultural relativist approach to non-derogable, human rights in particular, such as the right to life. I will conclude that it is absurd to use cultural differences as a reason for violating human rights. This justification must be rejected. I will conclude by saying that the international human-rights system must make sure that countries take strong measures to protect those most vulnerable, and that those responsible for abuses tied to cultural beliefs are prosecuted. Albino persecution is a prime example of this. A second role of the international system is to suggest a moral guideline to be followed by all societies. It could include the protection of people with disabilities from being beaten, expelled from the society, tortured and murdered, for example. These new ideas can change attitudes within societies, if and when they are accepted and ingrained in the cultures.

Cultural Relativism, International Human Rights, and the Past Three DecadesRelativism, which is a collection of different disciplines, has been at the forefront of establishing various theories, moral judgements, and ideologies over the past three decades. Cultural relativism has been derived from a wide range of disciplines.

Radical universalism is one extreme of cultural relativism, while radical cultural relativism is the other. Radical culture relativism says that a right only exists when it is actively perceived by the culture. Radical universalism holds that the culture is irrelevant to a right’s legitimacy. Other views exist between these seemingly opposite viewpoints. Strong cultural relativism accepts only a few rights internationally, but allows major variations. Weak cultural relativism accepts many universally applicable human right. They claim that cultural relativity cannot prevail over absolute rights like the right to live and freedom from torture.

I accept that there are some differences in culture. The reservations that we submit in the case where they are made to articles of conventions should be such that they do not alter the intention and purpose. When I say variations, what I really mean is differences. Not violations. Malta, for example, has made a request to the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to allow universal education. This is because of fiscal restrictions and the fact that Malta’s majority population is Roman Catholic. Delivering education to a certain religious belief, and in particular to the rare minority in Malta, can be challenging. The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) can tolerate reservations made by Malta, for example, because the majority of its population is Roman Catholic, and due to fiscal limitations, delivering education in line with a particular religious belief, particularly when it comes to rare minorities, will be difficult. The convention will be strengthened and its purposes furthered. This will also help to bring more parties into the treaty. Reservations made about core rights are unacceptable. They can cause violence and unrest. They can also lead to uprisings.

Aside from this, my position is not to ignore rights of second generation or those that are derogable. As I will show in the following case, I am fully aware that an infringement of one right may lead to another. For example, certain relativists accept culture as not being able to annul non derogable rights. However, they believe it can be used override some rights, like the right for physical integrity, to a free trial or the ban on discrimination.

The right to bodily health is a human right. It is important to be able to control your own body. This includes protection against medical experimentation, sterilization and other cruel or degrading punishments or treatments. Relativists may disregard the right for bodily integrity, believing that it violates what they consider to be derogable legal rights. But this can lead to the violation of a fundamental right as important as life itself. In a disturbing but related incident, albinos had their autonomy taken away by being decapitated to make money from their limbs. This resulted in many deaths.

Albinism Persecution is commonly called hunting of Albinos. As the word “hunting” implies that these people are prey or victims, I’ll refrain from using this dehumanizing term and instead call it the persecution of Albinos.

In order to understand the phenomenon of albinism and other paranormal phenomena, it is important to recognize that certain ancient ideologies were prevalent. As shown in the following examples, superstitions or witchcraft are a belief system that violates the fundamental human right of albinos.

Witchdoctors are the greatest threat to albinos, because they use superstitions and fear to instill fear into their followers. Witchdoctors infiltrate their followers’ minds and profit from the belief systems they have created. The claim is that the albino limbs and body organs are more potent. A senior Dar es Salaam police officer reported that a whole albino carcass, which included all four limbs plus genitals as well facial parts, was sold for $75,000 US. This staggering figure proves that dismembering albinos will continue as long as 12 million Tanzanians live in poverty. Albinos are deprived of the right to physical integrity and self-determination by selling their organs in exchange for money. This results in their death, violating their right.

As a result of the increase in HIV/AIDS cases in the African continent, many bizarre beliefs were developed. Most alarmingly, sexual contact with people who have albinism can cure sexually transmitted disease. Albino women are more likely to be affected by this than men. These diseases are transmitted to their children and husbands. In Tanzania, 33,000 people were killed by an AIDS-related disease in 2016. Albino women are not the majority of sex workers, but they are still affected by AIDS because their belief in the medicinal properties of their skin condition fuels this type of violence. AIDS may not kill these women instantly, but the limited availability of antiretroviral treatments will reduce their life expectancy. Albino women may not be stripped of their rights to life by the rape cultures associated with them, but the denial of years of life due to AIDS infection is a violation of this right. Forced sexual activity is still a bodily violation whether done directly or through indirect means.

Albinos are also persecuted based on their gender. Women who have albino children are more likely to be raped, and they are also shunned for bringing shame to their families. These women are accused of adultery and infidelity, which leads to their divorce or abandonment. Albinism is stigmatized, and this burden forces single mothers to make difficult decisions, such as abandoning their children, aborting them, or even killing them. The practice is a clear manifestation of discrimination against women, based on their gender. In turn, discrimination against women can lead them to commit infanticide. This in turn leads to more serious violations, such as the violation of a child’s fundamental right to live.

The Tolerance Argument for Cultural RelativismThe name of this paper calls on tolerance and the respect of other cultures, even when they reject rights. My argument states that we should tolerate differences in cultures, but they shouldn’t be regarded. The argument of tolerance is a cultural relativist one.

Tolerance is the argument that we can be tolerant of others if we accept their differences. Relativism suggests that we are not able to impose morality onto different cultures. Tolerance is a result of not doing this. By accepting relativism we commit to a policy based on tolerance. I think the argument of toleration works so long as there are no direct violations of core rights. This is not always possible, however, because in some instances, the perceived minor violations can result in the violation of fundamental rights.

Tolerance and respect are not interchangeable. Tolerance can be defined as “the willingness or ability to tolerate views or behaviors one does not agree with or dislike”. Respect is “a deep feeling of admiration or admiration for something or someone elicited through their qualities, abilities or achievements”.

To confirm my position, imagine you are from a country that has a strong belief in witchcraft. As a human, I would have to accept your belief even if it seemed absurd. It does not mean I respect or admire your belief or you. Respect is often demanded and expected from those who hold a particular belief. I accept cultural differences but I cannot respect them or admire them. This would be a violation of other human right. Tolerance has limits in this context. In this sense, even tolerance has limits.

The Limits of TolerationRelativists believe that matters which are morally acceptable to certain cultures do not necessarily have to be morally correct for another. Tolerance does not mean that we can impose what we perceive as ‘right’ on other cultures. Relativism doesn’t guarantee tolerance. A relativist is not obligated in any way to be tolerant. For example, if an entire culture rejects the concept of tolerance, its members have no duty to be tolerant. I can’t guarantee that if I decide to impose my morality on other cultures or refrain from doing so, the people of those other cultures will accept my beliefs. Tolerance is a virtue for me, but I do not tolerate differences that cause harm. This argument follows when Tilley builds his premises on the albinos case:

If relativism is true, you cannot impose your morality to other cultures. You can’t say that the persecution and exclusion of albinos are immoral.

It is important to refrain from the idea that albinos are treated unfairly in comparison with others.

Tolerance is shown by refusing to impose morality upon others, or in contrast, by allowing albinos to be persecuted.

In the end, relativism forces us to accept other cultures and tolerating albinos.

The premises above confirm that it is impossible to be both tolerant and fulfill human rights obligations. This is true in particular if victims are victimized by crimes committed out of cultural prejudice. The rights of victims can be interpreted culturally, threatened, and subjected as a result to moral absolutism.

If the cultural interpretations of right and wrong are used to categorize actions, then it can be inferred that there is no universal morality, which would allow actions to be judged. Tolerance, therefore, prevents relativists to disapprove of atrocious acts as this would be intolerance. It is discriminatory to condemn acts outside of one’s culture, even if they are based on reasonable reasons. What is being said here is that the practice of killing albinos in Sub-Saharan Africa is morally valid, just like the opposite.

Possible Solutions Attempting to influence culture will be vital as the law set forth by the Tanzanian Government has not been able to stop the albinos. Witchcraft Acts are remnants of colonial law, which shows that witchcraft’s effects have been present throughout history. Tanzania’s recent amendment of the Witchcraft Act, in 2009, reiterates the fact that witchcraft is punishable according to the laws. This shows the colonial-era law is no longer valid, and that even today’s government won’t tolerate it. Tanzania has implemented strong legislation, but the practice persists due to its deep-rooted cultural roots. The state does not violate the rights of the people, but the members of the community do. Therefore, engagement and intervention must be done on a culture level. In order to deal with the problem of witchcraft that existed in pre-colonial Africa, legal measures are inadequate. This is because perpetrators have continued to practice it, justifying the act through cultural reasons, all the while hoping not to be caught. Tanzanian authorities should therefore adopt a strategy that uses both legal and educative means.

I certainly do not say that despite all of these events, the international human-rights system hasn’t put in enough effort. The OHCHR, among other programs, has created the World Programme for Human Rights Education in order to solve such problems. The OHCHR has already established many programs including the World Programme for Human Rights Education to resolve such issues. Discussions on radio and television about the causes of albinos’ physical appearance will help educate society members on this genetic disorder. It is important that it not be treated as a discriminatory practice. This exposure can be used to reduce the hostility of society towards albinos. It will also help shift dehumanization from albinos. It is also important that albinos are educated about their disease. Constant resentment towards them from others can lead to self hatred and a desire to isolate themselves.

In the event that educational exposure is not effective, it may be necessary to consider aggressive measures. Second, I propose that sanctions be imposed until the governments make progress in dealing with abuse cases. The states have a duty to protect the rights of albinos even if they are not the ones directly violating them. The sanctions are widely criticised for their impact on the ordinary citizens of those countries. Sanctions can be useful in cases where human rights are being violated by individuals and not governments.

ConclusionConcluding, relativists’ claims threaten international human rights implementation. Murdock believes that cultures are “illusory abstract concepts.” While I agree that eradicating cultures is a viable solution to the debate over cultural relativism, I don’t think it would be the best option. I believe cultures should be anchored and positively influenced. If cultures and nations are exposed more to positive cultural norms and a stronger outlook, then the entire personality of a group will be changed. In many ways, this is an educational journey. It is a way of guiding people in different ways. If you use any other method, such as promoting education and guidance in order to raise standards, relativists may accuse you of colonialism. The fact that culture can be changed and, in many cases, is constantly changing is another important point. In order to avoid the spread of harmful and immoral practices, education about cultural mediocrity is necessary.

The Importance Of Self-concept In The Development Of Human Relations

Table of Contents

An opening statement

The concept of the component




The Johari Model


In conclusion

An initial overview

Self is the collection of non-physical characteristics, such as personality or ability, which make a person unique. Gecas (1982), argues that the terms “self” (process) and “self concept” (structure) should be distinguished as this leads to confusion about whether the self is actually a process. The self concept, as used by Gecas in 1982’s journal “The Self Concept”, refers to the process of reflection that is derived from the dialectic between “I” and the “Me”.

Several factors influence the formation of a self-concept. The image or perception that is created against us by others determines what they say about ourselves. In addition, we are affected by our role, media messages, experiences, gender and culture. The way we see ourselves is a major factor in the way we communicate with others and are accepted by them. Thus, there is a need for people to develop the understanding in the process of communicating with others to enhance the development of human relations.The concept and componentSelf-conceptSelf-concept is distinguishable from self-awareness, which refers to the extent to which self-knowledge is defined, consistent and currently applicable to one’s attitudes and dispositions. Experiences, knowledge and backgrounds can impact the way a message is interpreted. We must therefore understand the process of accumulating experiences, knowledge and background. Self-concept plays a key role in interpersonal communication. This is the mental picture that people have of themselves. This self image is a product of our past interactions and experiences. The way we see ourselves is not always the same as how other people perceive us. Self-esteem and self-image are the two major components of self-concept.

Self-imageSelf image is the way people see themselves. It is also the total subjective impression of a person, including their perception of themselves. Self-image influences behaviour positively, for example by giving someone confidence in what they think and do. The negative effects of self-image include making people doubt their own abilities and beliefs. Many people believe in self-image. Some people believe, for example, that the circumstances that surround a person, such as their schooling, job, or relationship, define his or her self-image. Some believe that the person’s own self-image is what shapes those events. It is undisputed that the self-image of a person has a strong impact on their happiness and outlook. If someone has a good self-image, they are likely to be seen as positive and capable by others. Self-esteem is one of the components in self concept, but self image is different. It refers to what an individual believes other people think about him or herself. Self-images may not match what others actually think, but it is easy to imagine how they can affect human relationships. People may not be as motivated to improve their situation if they think that other people view them as arrogant. This is a very unhealthy and unproductive way to work with others. According to the theory, people need to control their self-image in order for them have better relationships with others.

Self-esteemSelf-esteem is a reflection of an individual’s overall subjective evaluation of his or her own worth. It includes one’s self-perception, emotions like pride, shame, and despair. The environment and development of an individual can influence and determine self-esteem. Nilofar Vasir and Syeda Imana Raza wrote in an article published on June 9, 2009 on the topic of ‘What is self-esteem?’ that a good sense of self-esteem helps one feel confident and proud. Self-esteem gives people the confidence to try something new and fosters respect between individuals, even when mistakes are made. Everyone should begin to build their self-esteem immediately. As positive influences, parents, colleagues, friends, and associations can help to develop the self-esteem of others. Because people who feel confident and competent tend to be more successful than those who feel low self-esteem. Having a higher level self-esteem allows one to project better. They can learn from their mistakes and communicate better. It will lead to better relationships with other people.

The Johari WindowThe Johari Window (also known as the Human Relations Model) was created by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham. It is designed with four main roles in mind to encourage greater openness to personal growth. They are: self-disclosure; encouragement of others to be more open, and feedback.

Open Area: This is where we can share our personal traits with others. This area contains information such as communication style and level of trust. Enlarging the area that is visible leads to shrinking the area that is hidden. It will also reduce the distortions of mistrust in people’s minds, allowing for a more positive relationship between peers.

Blind Area: This is where we don’t see ourselves clearly or what others think of us. You may be unaware of your own weaknesses and faults or what others think about you.

Hidden Areas is where you hide things about yourself that you don’t want anyone else to know. Hiding true feelings or thoughts can influence how others react to us.

The Unknown Area contains all the suppressed emotions, desires, and memories that can be expressed in unplanned and unconscious behavior. Newstrom & Rubenfeld, 1983, stated that parties are not aware of the relevant information in this area. Even though both parties are unaware of this, it can still impact the quality and overall relationship.

The Johari Window can be used to communicate. The Johari Window can be used to develop oneself and to help a team communicate more effectively by understanding what they already know. To practice the Johari Window at an early stage, it’s recommended to start with the first one. If the team feels comfortable, they can expand the list to include negative traits. When the team is ready to move forward, the participants can then use the entire window for discussion of goals, thoughts and skills. The more this method is used, the better human relationships can be developed in the team.

The Johari Window, a tool that compares self-perception to other people’s perception, has become an invaluable guide for improving development. Understanding the Johari Window concept can lead to a better relationship between people. As we strive to improve our interpersonal relations, cooperation and teamwork, we should increase the Open Area.

Self-disclosureSelf-disclosure is a process of communication by which one person reveals information about himself or herself to another. Self-disclosure doesn’t have to be profound to be meaningful or useful. For example, people can reveal their hidden selves to others to create a meaningful relationship. Self-disclosure could be unintentional or intentional, including unconscious behaviours and pronunciations. The information that is hidden from others will be more self-disclosure than the information which has not been revealed. To build a better relationship with others, it is important to be honest about yourself. It is true that self-disclosure leads to better human relationships, but it can also have the opposite effect. Self-disclosure that is inappropriate or not timed well can cause relationship damage. The level of intimacy, type of relationships and place where information is shared are all factors that can affect the success of a self-disclosure.

The process of self-disclosure may be complex, but it is important for the development, progression and survival of relationships. The rule of exchange is an important part of self-disclosure. This rule says that the best way to reveal personal information is in a back-and-forth fashion. It is expected that if someone discloses something private, the other person will do so as well. It can cause inequality in a relationship when one person is more forthcoming than the other.

ConclusionOur perceptions are heavily influenced both by our surroundings and those around us. This includes the environment we find ourselves in, the past and present experiences that we have, and also the age at which we recognize who we truly are. Any perception we have of ourselves or of others can affect our self image, which is what helps us define who and where we are. The self-image and self-assessment are also important components of the concept. Self-esteem is determined by the positive and negative experiences that have been accumulated in life.

Conclusion: There are several factors that influence the development of a person’s self-concept. They include the description of other people by others, the way people perceive others, the comparison between us and them, and their cultural background. So, it is important to discuss the Johari Window with those who are interested in improving human relationships.

Texas: Constitution, Voter Distribution And Demographics

Texas is governed by the Texas Constitution. Texas holds elections every four-years. Recent years have been characterized by a low voter turnout. It is said that this is due to the diversity of demographics. Texas is home to a large population of voters that does not turn out for their votes. In my essay, my primary idea will be the senatorial seat. Texas is reported to be very tolerant of its citizens, who don’t vote. There are a lot of people who can’t vote in Texas. An estimated third of Texas citizens are not of voting age. Unauthorized immigrants make up another third of the population.

This topic is vital to understanding the situation. Texas has a history of low voter turnout. Texas voters are adamant that legislators should make voting easier, more accessible and more accurate. Demographics is cited as the reason for low voter turnout. Texas, it is said, is a very young state. Many Texas residents are younger than the voting-age. This is about a third. These illegal immigrants have no voting rights. The Texas Constitution is responsible for this ineligibility. A further 4.7 million immigrants have been reported as being ineligible for voting. The reason for this is their citizenship. This is a third the population of Texas. It is believed that the voting population in Texas is significantly whiter than the population.

The population under 65 years old will be diverse. As the older population dies off, the number voters will decrease. In 2020, it is expected that voter turnout will be significantly lower than previous elections. The demographics of Texas and the voter distribution can help you make a fair choice on who will win. Low voter turnout can make it difficult to predict who will win. A low voter turnout may not be advantageous to Hegar, who is the best candidate for the Senate position. This is because opponents may have a larger number of supporters. She also advocates for a diverse economy in Texas and a strong growth of jobs. She believes that the government should be accountable and transparent to its citizens.

Texans are affected by a variety of issues. Some of these issues are: Abortion, Gun Control, Moral Decline, Immigration, Border Security, Economy & Jobs, and lastly Health Care. Texas’ top concerns are reportedly immigration and economics. Texans are also said to benefit from border security and immigration. Controlling guns will improve security for Texans. The importance of health care is a factor that must be taken into consideration.

Hegar will need to consider these factors to be successful as Senator of Texas. She should make border safety a key point of her campaign. Texans place a high value on security. She should advocate for more security officers to enhance border security. She must also prioritize gun control and establish a state-wide committee in charge of licensed guns. It will bring about more security for Texans. This will create jobs in Texas. It will also reduce the poverty rate and number of unemployed people in Texas. For Hager to win the 2020 elections and become the Senator of Texas, she needs to make health care a priority.

Texas politics is influenced by interest groups. These groups often support candidates in an attempt to gain favors from the winning candidate. The NRA has its own advocacy group to support gun rights. The political committee (PAC), which collects and distributes the funds to candidates that they support, is a PAC. The 2020 elections may be affected by these three groups. The reason is that they have many followers who are both supportive and listen.

Texas is an area where there are not many voters. It’s important that more people vote in order to elect the best candidate. The 2020 elections are likely to have fewer voters than in the past. Hager losing by just 3% is a sign that she’ll win in 2020. In her remarks, she stated that a leader for Texas needs to be one who is reflective of the population. Hegar is a good candidate to run for Texas senator in 2020.

Works Cited

Neither the original nor paraphrased versions of the phrase have changed. The phrase “Works Cited” is a standard phrase used to refer to a list of sources used in a research paper.

Grant, Darren. Public Choice 172.3-4, (2017): 421 – 422.

Sharkey, Joseph R., et al. BMC Pediatrics 12.1, 2012: 16.

Cramer Clayton E. The racist roots” of gun regulation. Pol’y 4 (1994): 17.

Hager, Jenna Bush. ‘Jenna Hager.’ George HW Bush: 197.

Thurber, James A., et al. Proceedings of the field of Political Science and Politics.

Ditton Robert B. Hunt Kevin M. Texas A&M University Human Dimensions Fisheries Research Laboratory Report# HD-605, College Station, 1996.

My Way Of Breaking The Teenage Stereotype

Stereotypes can be used to classify and organize people based upon the different characteristics they display. Some stereotypes may be grounded in fact while others are more fiction or speculation. A common stereotype of 13-18 year-olds is that they are self-centered, lack a work ethic, or have little knowledge about financial survival. These stereotypes can hinder development but only a portion of the population is affected by them.

Self-centeredness is something all people have to struggle with. My ability to see the needs of others and put them first is something I pride myself on. I give 110% and will do whatever it takes to get the job done. It is necessary to make life-changing decisions. These crucial decisions can sometimes be seen as self-centered and selfish, but they are essential for your development. You will likely not be able to work hard if your childhood was one where you had no responsibility and were allowed to sleep in peace every night. I was fortunate enough to grow up in a home that expected me to do chores and discouraged laziness. This helped me develop the work ethic. It is difficult to balance two jobs while completing high school full-time. It takes planning, time management, and the willingness to make sacrifices. This is a great example of how teenagers can work hard and not be lazy.

As a high-school senior, I’ve experienced the stress and anxiety of applying to colleges. I’ve always tried to save money and plan for the future so it wasn’t as stressful for me as some people think. Simple financial concepts were taught to me by my parents, which has helped me make big life decisions. These financial concepts helped me to deal with unexpected situations such as buying a car or paying for college.

This shows that stereotypes can only be viewed as opinions. While they may sometimes be true, they often prove offensive and false. My goal, however, is to prove people wrong. I’m hardworking, responsible, and care about people well. Stereotypes can be like wearing foggy glasses and refusing to see what you perceive as the truth.

Successful Technical Communication And The Necessity Of Text’s Audience, Purpose, And Context Critical Analysis

How is it critical for technical communication to be able to analyze the context, audience, and purpose of the text? What are the possible influences on technical communication from different audiences, purposes, and contexts?

An ability to correctly analyze the context, audience and purpose of technical communications is key to a successful communication. This analysis is what allows one to understand and create documents and presentations within an engineering context. This implies that without an accurate analysis of the context, audience and purpose of the communication, one cannot gain skills essential in responding to varied communication contexts and situations thus rendering the communication ineffective.Depending on the context, purpose and audience of any technical communication, several factors are bound to change in order to meet their understanding. Engineering context is a key factor in the selection of software, devices, or services for the communication. The engineering context will play a significant role in dictating the language used.

My works were addressed primarily to my peers in Design4Practice. EGR 386w may change this to include key engineers who might be interested.

Technical communicators (e.g., engineers) often struggle to be appropriately clear, concise, and comprehensive in their writing/communication. What makes this difficult? This balance may seem difficult to achieve in the past.

It is often difficult for technical communicators to achieve the right balance of clarity, completeness, and conciseness. This is due to the nature work they handle. Take engineering as an example. The work is complex and detailed, so it requires extensive work to express them. Technical communicators often neglect to communicate clearly and concisely in order to achieve this understanding. They choose less clarity and more conciseness and the result is usually very clear and concise. This makes it difficult to find the right balance between clarity and comprehension.

Personally, I have never been in such a situation.

EGR 386w is a course that focuses on ethical technical communication. What are some possible ethical pitfalls in technical communication? And why should this concern engineers and stakeholders?

Engineers can demonstrate their competence to do engineering work accurately, honestly and without bias through ethical technical communication. This ensures engineers enroll only for work they are capable of performing competently and without strain, ensuring top-quality work.

Technical communication may be viewed as unethical in situations where the technical communicator fails acknowledge authorship and does not cite works. In addition, work that is delivered does no good for society. Engineers must be very concerned about such cases because they can lead to a reduction in the quality and success of their work.

What technical writing conventions are you most familiar with (e.g., grammar and punctuation, spelling, organization, etc.)? These conventions will be improved upon during the EGR386w semester.

My grammar and organization have been a major problem over the years I’ve worked as a technical communicator. I have also struggled with proper punctuation when writing.

These conventions were reinforced by me during the EGR386w semester. These strategies include spending more time learning English grammar and punctuation. The second will require you to be able to read and understand different text formats. These strategies should help me understand and utilize these conventions better in the future.

A Comparison Of The Similarities And Differences In Interpersonal Communication Of Italians And Americans

Interpersonal communication in Italian

Italy has a high culture of context. They learn more from environmental and nonverbal cues than they do from spoken words. They are very relaxed about time and use many hand gestures.

Italian culture’s chronemics are very laid back and relaxed. It is also known to be a polychronic society, where relationships and quality interaction are more important than following a set schedule. There is no time limit, so things happen when they are convenient. Multitasking is an integral part of Italian culture. It’s common for many things to be done at once, which means that it’s easy to do multiple tasks. Italians pride themselves on social interaction. They will sometimes set aside entire days to talk with their friends. There may be many tasks that continue beyond the end of their scheduled time and they might not complete them at the same hour. It is fine to be late for an event. It isn’t important what time it takes to get there, but it is crucial that everyone has a good time. Italians also have a relaxed approach to time. They are better at communicating using haptics than Americans. One example is the “what” word. This hand gesture involves connecting all fingers to form a shape called a “beak”, then moving your hand back and forth. The hand gesture to show closeness between friends includes holding your hands together with one hand facing upward and the other down. Italy’s culture prides itself on its ability to greet people. A greeting that is traditional in Italy is to embrace an acquaintance with a hug, kiss them on their cheeks and give them a light handshake. On the streets, you may see people pushing and pulling through crowds. You might also witness couples walking together while holding hands. Even though interpersonal communication is quite different in Italy than in America, Americans and Italians are very similar in their self-presentation.

Italians place great importance on first impressions and presentation. Bella Figura is an Italian term for beautiful presentation. It is the Italian fashion conscientiousness and well-dressed. Simple, elegant clothing is common in Italy. It is not unusual to see Italians judging their clothes, shoes, or accessories. They are very strict about dress standards and believe that swimsuits and shorts should only ever be worn to the beach or in a pool. To wear anything else would be considered shameful and a sign of someone lacking self-respect. Bella Figura goes beyond appearance. It also applies to how one looks at themselves. This is somewhat like the idea of face. Eye contact can be a way to express confidence in American or Italian culture. Eye contact can be used to show honesty and intensity. However, it is rude and could indicate that the listener doesn’t care about what the speaker is saying.

Italians and Americans also have similar listening styles. People can show their interest by looking at each other, raising their eyebrows, smiling and leaning in. This shows they are attentive to what is being said and creates a friendly environment. This is similar to the ways we avoid conversations by closing our eyes, crossing our arms, leaning back and avoiding eye contact. These behaviors create a negative communication environment and indicate that people aren’t trying to listen attentively. These concepts illustrate how American culture and Italian culture can be so very different.

Italy’s high culture of context allows people to look at the whole conversation and not just the words. Italians have a relaxed culture. They communicate with each other using hand gestures and haptics. While communication is different between American and Italian culture, there is a shared listening style. This shows that communication does not need to be frenetic or high-strung.

Quinceañera – A Hispanic Coming Of Age Celebration

Each culture has its own unique events, which are passed down from generation to generation. Young women in Spain celebrate their coming of age with a special celebration. Quinceanera, which is a religious celebration, takes months to prepare for.

It is more than a fiesta. The honoree also has to confirm her faith through a ceremonial element. Quinceanera refers to “the celebration a girl’s 15th Birthday, marking her transition from girlhood and womanhood.” The term is also used by the celebrant.

Quinceaneras’ origin is hard to trace. It is believed it was a prehistoric Aztec custom dating back to 500 B.C. The festivities were held only by the wealthy Latin Americans in earlier years. Latin Americans who were wealthy had the tradition of marrying promising young men at “debutante balls”. It gradually gained popularity, and soon became part of the culture of those in the middle and lower classes. They modified the original to reflect their traditions and ways of celebrating. According to one report, Quinces were already being celebrated in Latino communities by 1930. This celebration became the modern ceremony in the 1970s-80s. The ceremony was religious in nature, combining the Aztec rituals with the “debutante balls”.

Additionally, the church requires honorees and chosen members to attend religious education classes months in advance of the ceremony. This is because the original event was classified as a process in which young women were offered up to men promising their services. The Roman Catholic Church refused to participate in the event because it required that all teenage members understand the religious aspects. This was done to honor the young lady and not force her to please the men. Once that is done, the family can determine the date and time for the misa, or Mass, which will be held specifically for Quinceanera. It begins with the family and friends stepping in, followed closely by the sponsor padrinos and the remaining fourteen members of court. The honoree is then escorted by her honorary chambelan and/or her parents (Hill 146).

It is easy to see why a celebration this important and large requires so much planning. Because the cost of the items adds up quickly, some expenses are shared by the celebrant’s friends and family. The title padrinos is awarded to those who help or are willing to do so. Madrinas sponsor male padrinos. These sponsors are typically close relatives or family because they participate in such a significant event. They are there to help the young lady navigate the next stage of her life. The cost for the dress will be paid by the Baptism Fathers. Other items such as food, cakes, shoes and jewelry can all have padrinos de honor assigned (Hill & Daniels 149). These are the people who have contributed significantly to the costs of the celebration. These people are usually listed on the invitations as well as the progress at the ceremony and reception. They are encouraged and expected to toast the start of a new chapter. There are items used at the fiesta.

Many items are used to symbolize many traditions that are part of Hispanic culture. As a reminder of God’s Words, the quinceanera is given the Bible. To help grow their faith, they also receive a book with prayers. To complete the package, they receive a rosary. This rosary has been accepted by the Church as a tool to pray and was given to us (DaVinci). par. 7). The quinceanera receives small gifts with great symbolism and meaning all day.

A quinceanera was an exciting event for girls as young as they were. Although they didn’t understand the traditional and religious aspects back then, they still wanted to be “princess” in big, beautiful dresses. A scepter, an item of power that is usually used by royalty, is a common symbol of their power. The cumpleanera, a cunce, receives this item to symbolize the power they gain in the religious communities. It may also symbolise the obligation to take part in important events and rituals in the Church. This is a symbol of power and responsibility, and it is definitely not the last.

A padrinos can also provide cojines. They are slightly less important. These tiny pillows can be used for the placement of the tiaras and heels as well a scepter. A cojin may be needed for mass when you need to kneel. These can be bought as a set or handmade. The reception after the ceremony is traditional and contains many pieces.

Although the reception and ceremony are both memorable, it is also a family event that will be remembered for many generations. Many families prefer to capture the day in pictures. Because everyone is different, Quinceaneras can be very unique. While some are smaller than others, they can be as expensive as a wedding. It can be held in a variety of locations, including at the home of the celebrant or at a public venue. The meaning and tradition of the adult transition, no matter how extravagant, will still be there, regardless of how extravagant the celebration. Modern technology gives families the opportunity to preserve this moment in time. The cost of professional photographers can be high, and often requires a padrino. After the ceremony is over, the honoree along with her court members take a ride in a vehicle of their choosing, most prefer a limousine, and travel to a location where they can take photographs. The photographer will take pictures of the court and also the quinceanera. The honoree and her family then take pictures. Guests can now mingle with their families and have a good time.

Recuerdos (small, remembrance gift) are distributed to family members before the event. They are usually given by a younger cousin. These could include small mirrors and candies, or religious items such as candies, candles, or candies. You can have the date and name of the cumpleanera engraved on them. These will be given to family members, court officials and padrinos. These tokens are meant to mark the occasion and to show appreciation to all who supported her during her life. The best part of the day comes after everyone has had an opportunity to greet one other.

No matter how supportive and traditional your family is, many will only attend for the food. You can expect the meal to consist of one or two things. For Hispanic celebrations, common dishes include tamales, pozole (a corn-and-meat stew), and pozole (a tamale). You can add rice or beans to your dish. Soft drinks and aguas Frescas are also options. A family member prepares the meal, typically the aunts and grandmas or aunts. However, catering makes the meal less stressful for the family. Tacos are a growing favorite food. They are simple and delicious. The spotlight is now back on the quinceanera, her family and the delicious meal.

The child must follow her parents’ and the Baptism Padrinos religious instructions when she is Baptized. The child is then placed before God ceremonially. She should have asked her parents and padrinos to renew her vows during her Quinceanera. She is now able to make her own faith decisions. Her parents will be there for her if she needs them. To commemorate her, she wears a beaded or flower-adorned headpiece to mass. Later, an honoree’s family member makes the switch to a traditional tiara. It is a sign that she is viewed as a princess by God. In remembrance her childhood, the lady must act and behave like one.

There comes a time when toys are deemed inappropriate for children. This is acknowledged and accepted during the celebration. Her parents give the Quinceanera a Last Doll’. It’s most likely that she received the first doll from her parents.

The Importance Of The News Media

We are news readers. The news wouldn’t exist without our reading it. Media has one purpose: to inform their readers. Scrolling through social media can lead to some interesting news. A retweet and thumbs up will give that piece of information more attention. We click on news stories, whether or not we like them. This gives the news more power and entertainment. News media allows us to find information from around the globe. We can communicate with people around the globe through the news. Information is available on entertainment, science, politics, and business. Unfortunately, not every article we read is right for us. It is then that we ask the question “How does the press pander?” It is us who have created the media. It is because we have made it so popular that we can see the trends in the news. Advertisers pay thousands for media clicks. Advertisers will lose money if we don’t click on the news. Advertisers make money when you click on something. Even if you don’t like it.

The news media is a crucial part of our history. Brooke Gladstone of America, a journalist and author, is a media-analyst. In her book The Influencing Machinery (2011), Brooke discusses the history and current state of the news media. The media was a source of comfort and information during Hurricane Katrina. Many people were helped by the media’s communication with them. Reporters would speak out about the frustrations and anger of the public (Gladstone41). I remember the storm that brought down Hurricane Sandy. It was so tragic to witness the land that I grew-up in being destroyed. My family and me would watch the news hourly to find out any updates about the terrible loss we had suffered. This has been a constant theme in our lives for a long time. These are the news we need to hear. Then there’s news we don’t need but still want to hear. We are the audience. These celebrities were made famous by all the attention they received, even the negative. These people are often the trending topics right now, so news reports tend to focus more on them. We don’t like it, but the media is actually trying to pander to us. The news stories out are the most popular and the most important. We only see what we are being shown. Is there more? We only see a small part of the picture, not all. One example is the White House’s reputation for keeping secrets from the general public. I was particularly struck by the September 11th attacks. Gladstone says that the White House made 935 false claims about Iraq within the two years immediately following 9/11 (Gladstone 31). This is an alarming number. This is the outcome we get from our government servants. Another example is Watergate, which was a pivotal moment in the history of journalism. After the leaks about President Nixon’s scandal were made public, people started trusting media more (Gladstone39). This is not a random phenomenon. This is something that many reporters have to deal with every day. The country should be able to see what’s happening in the world. Gladstone states that the media does not fear the government. They are afraid of their audiences,”(Gladstone xiv). Even though the president and other government officials are considered authority figures, they still serve the public as reporters. Their main job is to serve public. (Gladstone 38). This shows that media doesn’t speak or write to please government like they did centuries before. Instead, they distribute information to please their readers.

We control what is being broadcast via the media. But, not all information will be available to us. Plato wrote “The Cave”, about a prisoner that saw into the sun while escaping from his prison. He became blinded under the bright sunlight. Plato 107 states that the prisoners returned to their cave to notify other prisoners of his discovery. The cave’s world, while it may seem very fictional, is quite similar to our world. We are not able to know everything about the world. But is this a good thing? Sometimes, knowing everything isn’t the best thing. We humans are often happier when we know less. Our ignorance, just like the cavepeople, is all that keeps us sane.

Elizabeth Kolbert said in her article, “That’s How You Think”, that people encounter the same problems as they listed in the New Yorker magazine. It doesn’t help to provide accurate information. People just ignore it. Although appealing to others’ emotions might be more effective, it is clearly not in the best interest of sound science. (Kolbert 70). She talks about the difficulties reporters face when trying to give accurate information but still please the public. This article reveals how people believe they know much more than they do. Our minds are wired to believe what we agree with is true and invalid. If we don’t agree with something, we quickly reject it and discredit it. Media cannot disclose any information sent by the government. They have to make the hard decision of what information is being relayed to the public, how it is being presented to them, and when. The challenge is in balancing the need to please and protect the audience from panicking.

We request information to be shown on the news. Even if we disagree with it or hate it. It is important to give it attention. I’ve been guilty of many times retweeting funny or ignorant posts without realizing the effect it has on others. A video from Dr. Phil where a 13-year old girl was guest on the show is one of my favorite moments. Her name, Danielle Bregoli is more commonly known as the “Cash me Outdoor” girl. Dr. Phil featured this young girl in September 2016. She was an abuser to her mother and displayed clear signs of anger issues. She gained attention due to her poor mannerisms and the slang she used. Despite most comments being hateful, she received a lot of attention online. Despite being despised by many, she still gained fame thanks to all those who spoke about her. She became a well-known celebrity because of this fame. According to The Sun Magazine’s article “Who Is Danielle Bregoli?” Cash Me Outside girl, Instagram star and cash me outside girl who got into a fight with her mom” The now 14-year-old girl has around 11 million Instagram followers and charges $32,000 for an appearance. Fit Tea and Postmate now have her as a spokesperson for their product. Her recording contract was signed with Kodak Schwarz, the well-known rapper. The attention we paid her has helped this young girl become a millionaire. You can search for her name in any search engine and you’ll find hundreds of articles about her. She has many followers and fans. People hated her and called her an “embarrassment” and “ignorant”. This is not news we need. However, it is news we will react to. It is shocking that most news stories are filled with celebrity gossip, while young people graduate college. This is the news you won’t see on the most popular pages.

To please their fans, more news outlets are focusing on the young girl. Many people feel that the media is feeding them “garbage” and reject this news. Elizabeth Kolbert looked at a study and said that “confirmation bias” is the tendency to accept information that supports a belief, and reject information that is contrary. This is a reflection on our character. The media cannot please everyone all the time. We watch only the news stations that we are most interested in. “So when our perceptions of ourselves are distorted by the media, we should be able to see that some aspects of what we see might actually be us. Celebrity stories are a lure. We love a good car race. It’s hard to not enjoy the refreshing spray of commentators praising our views. It is our actions that reflect who we are. The government does not control the media, but we do. We can choose what is being shown and made public. Readers decide whether or not news media promotes significant events.