Thomas Hardy’s Social Commentary In Tess Of The D’urbervilles

Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the d’Urbervilles contains social commentary about many of the major issues of Victorian life. Hardy examines the Victorian double standard by using Tess’ submission towards her parents, Alec d’Urberville and Angel Clare as well as society in general. Tess endures many trials in her life, but this double-standard seals Tess’s doom as the Victorian society prevents Tess to successfully rise above her oppressors. Hardy uses Tess’s subsequent destruction, as well as her submission to the society she represents, in order to critique other aspects.

Tess’ first oppressors are her parents, John Durbeyfield and Joan Durbeyfield. Both of them dream to rise above their lowly status of working class people in order to live a more comfortable life. Tess’s fate is set in motion when she receives financial aid from the aristocratic d’Urbervilles. John and Joan are blinded with greed as they send their daughter, Tess, to marry the d’Urbervilles. Tess’s family rebukes her for letting herself be seduced. Tess is outraged at the hypocrisy displayed by Durbeyfield. Why didn’t I get warned? The ladies know the tricks to avoid because they’ve read books that teach them. I, however, never had that chance and you haven’t helped me.” (82). This cry of help is in vain. Tess returns home to find her parents angry, seeing how humiliated they feel. The Durbeyfield family puts their daughter below themselves, exploiting and ignoring their needs whenever they can.

Alec d’Urberville is the second most powerful force that keeps Tess in submissiveness. Alec’s physical and psychological oppression begins with Tess’s rape. Alec’s return in Phase Six continues his abuse of Tess by accusing her of the incident in the woods. Alec also forces Tess to swear she won’t seduce Alec anymore. Alec’s response to Tess when she is asked about her religious beliefs is quickly dismissed as her husbands opinions. Alec takes advantage of his manhood to treat Tess badly. He uses the inferiority of women as an excuse. The trend is accentuated in the following chapter when Alec’s harsh language toward Tess increases. I will become your master once again. (336). Tess is referred to as a servant, which solidifies her status as Alec’s subordinate. Tess admits this at this stage, saying, “Once you’re a victim…you’re always a victim! That is the law!” (336). Tess is a victim in the society because of Alec’s dominance. Alec still abuses the power he gains from Tess, even when he is done with her sexual conquest.

Angel Clare’s influence on Tess is much more indirect than that of the Durbeyfields. Angel Clare was one of Tess’s only positive influences until their separation. Angel still tries to protect Tess even after Tess reveals her past. Angel’s inflexible morals, and his desertion to Brazil, may have caused Tess more pain than anything else. However Angel’s actions do not lead to Tess being submissive. Tess’s relationship with Angel offers important insights into how Tess has been shaped by other parties in addition to the social belief of the era. Angel sleepwalks with Tess in a coffin as they cross a river. Angel puts both Tess and himself in danger, but Tess remains completely submissive. Tess’s complete submission to her husband is further evidence of Tess’s blamelessness and the tragic nature of this story.

Tess seems powerless to resist men because of her status in society. Tess’s life is ruled by the double standard used in the Victorian era to judge women and men. Mary Jacobus discusses this idea when she says, “A sustained rehabilitation campaign makes Tess a blatant case of sexual morality being applied to both men and women. Tess herself was so blameless that the tragedy became the tragedy for the exceptional.”

Hardy’s greatest criticism of men’s subjugation is not John Durbeyfield or Alec d’Urberville but rather the society who condones such actions. Hardy explores Victorian society’s problems through the conflict between Tess, her men and other characters. Hardy’s conflict with Tess represents other issues in Victorian society besides his criticism of the role of women. Lisa Alther states in the novel’s introduction that Tess lives a life of “endless toil” and that no other writer has been able to capture the harsh demands of farmwork as well. Hardy argues that rural agriculture will not survive the mechanization of farming, just as Tess cannot avoid Alec. The appearance in the farm of the threshing equipment after Alec has told Tess again that he is her master, suggests to Hardy that the land also submits to this new way of farming.

Tess is not always submissive. There are moments in the novel when she struggles to be free. Tess defies expectations of what women should be like at that time. Tess rejects social norms in the baptism of Sorrow. Tess uses this act to reject the idea that her and baby are social outcasts. Hardy describes Tess as “singularly tall and intimidating” in her opposition to society. She is wearing a white nightgown that has a cable of dark hair that hangs straight down from her neck to her waist. Tess has a powerful personality, which is often suppressed but sometimes shown to the public. “…passionately spun the glove around in her face as Alec approached Tess after his return. This violence toward a woman is a stark contrast to Victorian views, and it represents women’s fight against double standards. Tess makes a final stand against Alec by killing him. Tess is portrayed as a woman’s martyr in her subsequent execution.

Tess has been used as a tool by other characters throughout the story. She is exploited for her economic status, sexuality and inferior position within society. She is made to serve the Victorian ideal woman and her men, as well as represent all women. Hardy’s idea that Tess’s Victorian society has a sexual double standard is evident in her various relationships. Tess’s tragic fate is a result of this inescapable inequity. She will never be free and happy despite all her efforts. Hardy uses Tess to illustrate England’s decline and the dangers of industrialization, represented by Alec. This serves to warn the society about what lies ahead. Tess of the d’Urbervilles’s critique of Victorian Society champions the women’s right.

1. Jacobus Mary Tess The Making of A Pure Woman. In: Harold Bloom, ed. Modern Critical Interpretations.

2. Lisa Alther’s work. Tess of the d’Urbervilles: Introduction New York’s New American Library published the book in 1999.

American Versus Chinese Concepts Of Beauty

Beauty trends change. In a world where we are constantly bombarded by information, it is important to be open-minded and take on subversive views. The mass media and fashion magazines, as well as televisions and magazines, have stereotypes about what beauty is. In addition, different cultures have different standards of beauty. Both Americans and Chinese have their own beauty standards.

Skin tone is the first thing that can make a difference. While both American and Chinese societies maintain a certain skin tone, they have different skin tones that are preferred. In ancient time, everyone was chasing after the perfect white tone. The American preference for skin tones has gradually changed from white to brown due to social and fashion reasons. Zoe Diana Draelos conducted a survey of 4000 female teens under 19 years old in the USA. She found that over 30% of them used tanning booths at least three times. In China, however, the trend of growing in the dark skin is still popular. Skin-whitening products are estimated to account for 60% of all skin-care sales. Skin tone preferences also influence daily behavior. On the street, you can see Chinese girls with long sleeves, sunglasses, hats and umbrellas. They are protecting their skin against UV light for health rather than to prevent tanning.

Second, body shapes are viewed differently in China and the US. The Chinese and Americans both appreciate a variety of body shapes. Beauty standards are different for everyone. The body shapes that are popular among Americans and Chinese people differ, particularly in social media. The American public is most interested in a body that reflects their gender. In the Kardashian culture of internet, women strive to achieve a curvy physique by regularly working out at the gymnasium or accepting a cosmetic surgery. Chinese people have a more strict stereotype. Chinese girls are mainly interested in a slim body. Sing Lee’s survey of Hong Kong University students found that nearly all female students who had a body mass indices above 20.5kg/m2 followed a diet even more unhealthy to shed weight.

The American and Chinese makeup styles are very different. Many Chinese and American women apply their perfect makeup before attending parties or conferences. American women often strive for makeup that is so perfect, it appears to be airbrushed. People prefer a heavier makeup look, which includes concealers and foundations. American girls prefer to choose foundation creams with a warmer tone than their skin. Some countries, however, prefer a more organic look. Chinese girls often use brighter colored foundations to draw attention to their faces. Chinese girls prefer to use a brighter color foundation that highlights their faces. The fact is that there are many different makeup styles. The most popular trend in China and the US is quite different.

It can be concluded that American and Chinese individuals have different views on beauty. This is true when taking into account skin tones, body shapes, and makeup styles. Both Americans and Chinese have different concepts of beauty. However, both are pursuing beauty in their eyes. The globalization has brought together all different types of beauty, and they are all respected.

Citing sources

Draelos, Z. D. (2009). The allure if tanned body. The Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology recently published an issue that contained two articles about advances in the field. This issue provided insight into the latest developments in dermatology related to cosmetics.

Leong, S. (2006). Who is fairest out of all the girls? Hong Kong TV ads for skin whitening cosmetics. Asian Ethnicity, 7(2), 167-181.

[bookmark: OLE_LINK3][bookmark: OLE_LINK4]Lee, S. (1993). How normal is the desire to be slim? A survey on eating behaviors and attitudes of Chinese students in Hong Kong. Psychological Medicine, 23(2), pp. 437-451, was an article that investigated the psychological effects of various medical conditions.

Senseney M. & Senseney M. 8 American Beauty Trends that are bizarre to other cultures.

Lee, S. (1993). How normal is the desire to slim down? Survey of eating habits and behaviors among Chinese students in Hong Kong.

The Roles Of Women In The Society

In the past there were differences in roles played by women and the models of their behavior. Women face disadvantages when it comes to institutional settings and do more housework than men. Since then, however, things have changed considerably. The society has been affected by the shift in gender roles. The western women prefer to make their own career than be a homemaker. They also share the rights of men. This fact shows that women’s rights are not burdens, but rather a form of freedom.

Women continue to fight for their rights. The debate on feminism continues today, with both supporters and opponents. But the key to understanding the causes of the movement is to know its roots (Gillis 2007, for example). This paper aims to establish the reality of the situation, and then determine whether the women will benefit by being granted the same status in society as men. The women’s role in the fight against equal opportunity emphasizes the positive effects of Feminism on the social construction of sex. This paper focuses on women’s right movements that are characterized by the 1st, 2nd and 3rd waves. These correspond to the first, second and third waves we learned in class. The development of first wave, second-wave and feminism in its third vagueness emphasizes the importance that women play in social reconstructions of gender and type (Howie 2010).

There are differences between these waves, even though they have a lot in common. The feminism of each wave is based on the success and failure of previous generations. First wave feminism is evident in the voting rights and the vote. These changes occurred between the years 1800 and 1900. This influenced the way women were represented (MacKinnon). The feminism of second vagueness was also launched in 1960. It focused on equal rights for women in employment, education, abortion, child custody, and other issues. Catharine MacKinnon a professor of rights at the University of Michigan as well as the author of Towards a feminist state theory, supports that women’s right are still restricted and that they need to expand their horizons. Various problems remain unsolved. The women fight to protect their rights.

The feminism that followed the first and second vagueness waves, as well as the 1980s feminism, reflected these concerns, including racism, discrimination and tensions between generations. The feminism based on third vagueness criticizes the collective past and constructs a dynamic, diversified movement. The multiculturalism is the key characteristic of this feminism (MacKinnon 1995).

Alice Walker (1983), a feminist philosopher, helps evaluate the role that virtues, beliefs, and values play in creating an ethical feminism based on the third vagueness. She affirms social activism as an important tool in promoting feminist ideas. It also addresses the issues posed by society’s diversity. In conclusion, it can be said that women have played an important part in history. This paper is the result of a study of the effect of social reconstructions on sexism and gender on women. It also shows their contribution to the fight for equal opportunity.

The history of women and equal opportunities focuses on their positive role in the fight to achieve equality.

The Impact Of Violence In Movies And Video Games On Children

“A young Alabama man was charged in 2003 with murder after shooting two policemen and three other men. He blamed the violent videogame ‘Grand Theft Auto. Video games with violent content can influence the behavior of children and teens. Video games with violent content and other uncontrollable material are bad influences for today’s youth. Chicago became the first American city in 1907 to have a motion picture censorship board. A censorship panel creates concerns and questions for society. It is also a spark that ignites concern about violence in media. In spite of the fact that it has been more than 100 year since the first censorship board was established, there is still no censorship on violent media content. Rating systems are in place and there are recommendations for media that is violent. But parents ignore them to see what their children like. The parental control of children has declined, allowing them to be exposed to violent media which can harm their psychological well-being. However, some people feel that when media are restricted they lose their right to expression and free speech. Today, the debate between free speech and censorship to benefit today’s youth continues to be a hot topic. It is important that the government restricts certain content from the media to prevent violence. Violence has a negative impact on children’s feelings, behaviors and attitudes.

It is important that the government restricts specific content, to prevent violence in media. The reasons for this are the environment as well as time and money. Many parents ignore the rating system for movies or content made available to the public. The fact that parents don’t care what their children watch and the movie theaters don’t either shows how uncaring they are. Rating systems do not work to protect children against violence and inappropriate material. Children can access illegal websites which may cause future health problems. Violence can have a negative impact on a child’s health.

The American Academy of Pediatrics stated that the strength of this correlation is greater than the ones between calcium intake and IQ, lead ingestion, and sexually-acquired human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, and non-use of condoms. This is an association that clinicians accept, and one on which the preventive medicine system is based.

The media is full of violent content, but parents and children don’t realize it. This quote illustrates how violent media, when viewed by children at an early age, can have long-term and side effects. Violent media can be detrimental to a child’s future and lead to a life of failure. Video games that are violent will have an impact on health and education. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics there is a strong link between violent videogames and health. In order to prevent future health problems for children, parents need to be in control of their household and have discipline. Video game and movie producers are well-paid and will do whatever it takes to maintain their growth. The addictive nature of children makes violent content popular. Parents and guardians don’t worry because the marketing is so convincing. It is clear that the entertainment media has plenty of money to spend convincing politicians and the general public that they need not worry. Media industries use propaganda, bribes and other means to convince the public that violent videogames are harmless and won’t affect their behavior. False advertising and false news keep parents from discouraging their children to purchase violent content or video games. Money can make people do terrible things and even cause harm to children. Children are constantly exposed to violent content in the media, and the media industry will use the money they make from advertising to influence parents. Media industries are ruining children’s lives to prosper and build businesses. Government should be able to restrict certain content in the media because it is harmful for children’s future.

The government must remove violent content from media in order for today’s youth to concentrate on their studies, maintain a healthy way of life, and feel secure in their community. Today’s children are more concerned with a healthy life style. They must be able maintain a balanced lifestyle while watching the appropriate content. Nevertheless, certain content interferes with a healthy lifestyle for children. In 1982 “The National Institute of Mental Health” published a report on the effects of mass-media violence. This was due to the organization’s concern about the impact of such violence on children. Staff concludes there is a link between televised violent behavior and aggressive children. Media violence affects children’s psychological well-being. Video games that are violent can cause addiction in children, which results in a lack of focus and sleep. In addition to losing sleep, children become less attentive and lose their concentration. Video games, and other violent media, can distract from important life factors such as education. Children who are addicted to violent media can develop mental disorders that are very serious. Addiction to violent media can also put children’s safety at risk. The Australian Psychology Society reported that “Children who watch a lot on-screen violence tend to think and behave aggressively” and show less empathy toward victims of violence (Sheehan). Violence can affect a child’s behaviour, which puts the safety of him and other children at risk. Violent media can cause a child to change their behavior and attitude, which is dangerous for those around them. Children’s safety is in danger. To protect the society from mental disorders that can put others at risk, the government should limit violent media. Addiction results in a temper, a loss of thinking ability and can even change the person’s view on people and laws. This is best understood through education.

Parents want to ensure that their children receive the best possible education and prosper. Parents want success for their child, and to focus on the future. Children are less likely to study and be concerned about the future when violent content is present. Instead, they become more violent. The child will see the world differently when they are aggressive and behave differently. Many researchers began to study how violent stories can increase aggression in later life. Researchers who have studied violent behavior have found that violent media influences a person’s personality and education. Children are influenced by what they watch on TV and online. Children will mimic the behavior and attitude of violent characters. Teenagers are careless with their actions and how they affect the society. In order to make today’s young people successful, media violence must be curtailed. Parents and guardians must keep an eye on education, health and safety, as well as ensure that violent media content does not affect a child.

Restricting violent content would also cause the public to rebel and violate government laws. Some people think censorship violates the First Amendment. One such example is this: “But the federal judge ruled, in 2006, that depictions of violent content are entitled’ to full constitutional coverage’ and Louisiana’s law constituted an ‘invasion First Amendment rights’ by video game makers, sellers and buyers.” (“Media Violence”). Censorship does not violate the constitution because it’s about protecting young minds. Some content should be restricted in order to protect children’s education and the welfare of viewers. Many movies allow free speech, but some content needs to be limited in order for children to be protected. Free speech and freedom of expression must be regulated and controlled. It is important to use this right wisely in order to reduce violence on the internet. Scientists and researchers disagree with the idea that violence can change behavior, attitude, and feeling. Kutner & Olson say that playing videogames can benefit players in later life. The studies cited by the critics show that playing video games can help children make better decisions and that women are able to develop skills that will improve their performance as scientists, surgeons and engineers. The video game’s violence is the primary factor in causing teen aggression. Kutner and Olson may have been able to play a PG rated game, which could be beneficial and educational. Violence in video games or on the Internet can affect how a child perceives his/her environment. Video games can teach children to think like engineers. Not all violent video games should be banned. The media industry and businesses will be hurt by censoring violent content. Many in our community think that violence can be mistaken as entertainment, despite the fact that it is damaging to a child’s psychological health. Kutner’s and Olson’s criticism of these penny-gaffs (low class theatrical productions) and cheap publications is one example. The content of some entertainment shows can make it appear violent to viewers. Adults see violence as a thrilling thriller or action. Children, on the other side, will use the “entertainment”, which is the same as adults. To protect children and adolescents, certain content should be restricted to reduce violence. Because of certain factors that are important to children, including health, education, or safety, the government must restrict some content in order to eliminate violence. Video games that are violent can be addictive to children, and have negative effects on their mental and physical health. This is illustrated by the statement: “In 2001, The American Academy of Pediatrics concluded that violent video games were responsible for an increase of 13 to 22 percent in violent behavior among teenagers — a factor comparable to smoking which causes a 14 percent rise in lung cancer”. Quote explains how violent video game play can lead to aggressive behavior. Violence resulting from playing violent videogames is the equivalent of smoking. This is a very alarming statistic and it can be used to convince people that certain content should be restricted. Teenagers are more likely to be addicted to violent media. A teenager has a growing phase that is already marked by emotional and hormonal imbalances. Violence in video games, and in other forms of media, can have a negative impact on behavior. The health of children is one of the main reasons for censoring certain content.

Violence can also be used to manipulate safety. Social media and video game use by children and adolescents should be monitored. Michael Carneal was a student at West Paducah High School in Kentucky when he fatally shot his three classmates. He had watched The Basketball Diaries. The movie contains a scene where a character is dreaming of committing a massacre at the school. Children around a child who has been influenced to violence by media are also at risk. Three innocent children were killed by the movie that was shown to the child. This puts safety at school in danger. Violence can create an unsettling environment at school, where a child is supposed to feel safe. The shootings in the film are a fictional event. But children can see and learn. The children who died were killed because a young child was watching an R rating movie without supervision. Media violence is endangering the safety of both parents and school administrators. Media violence can also have a negative impact on the education of teenagers and children. Video games that are violent can lead to addiction, which makes it difficult for students to concentrate on exams or study.

Violence can affect the brain and hormonal balance of children. This can have a negative impact on their academic performance. A December 2011 study by researchers at Indiana University School of Medicine showed a link between prolonged exposure to violent video games and changes in the brain regions responsible for cognitive function and emotional regulation. It is clear that violent video game play and hormonal imbalances are closely related. Teenagers who are emotionally unbalanced tend to lose concentration and focus on their education. Losing concentration in academics can lead to a teenager’s failure. The most compelling reasons for censoring specific media content is to reduce violence, including education, safety and health. Children’s health and education are vital to their future success. Children would face a difficult future and many psychological issues if the government did not enforce the laws against violence in media. While some video games can be educational, most violent video games have violent content and should not be published. Parents and teachers should be very careful what they show children as it could have devastating psychological effects. The government needs to limit the violence that the media portrays in order to provide a safe, well-educated atmosphere.

Causes And Effects Of Illegal Street Racing

Street racing is not only caused by gangs, but also by gang members. Teenagers do not like to be left alone because of what people think. Teenagers are tolerant of being part a large and powerful group. Most of the time, those who engaged in negative activity were part of large gangs or groups. Some teenagers want to be exposed to new experiences. Some teenagers do not receive approval from any group due to their lack of personality. To gain acceptance in those gangs they must show their masculinity.

Several studies have shown that teens involved in gangs race on the streets to relieve stress. Children are burdened by parents’ expectations. Parents often compare their children’s exam results with those of other children. Children may have difficulty sleeping, and may resort to illegal racing as a way to relieve stress. The street racing problem is caused by both peer and family pressure. These causes will affect the delinquents’ lives. Teenagers that commit crimes will experience some consequences they cannot possibly predict.

They may be imprisoned if, for instance, they accidentally crush someone. It is obvious that a criminal background will negatively affect their career, because no employer with any sense would hire someone who has committed murder. An article published on a site (Essays 2013,) stated that teenagers who lack interest and motivation to learn may also suffer academically. These teenagers’ studies will suffer because they give up studying simply due to boredom. Illegal racing on the streets is dangerous for both road users and teenagers. Delinquents may speed up to escape a police roadblock. They then cause accidents. Shortly, teens who participate in illegal street races may suffer negative effects.

There are many causes for street racing. They include lack of parents’ attention, poverty and financial hardships. It also impacts those who are delinquents and lead a troubled life. Experts agree that prevention and early intervention are key in reducing juvenile crimes. Parents are responsible for ensuring that teens receive love and care, but teenagers must also be aware of the importance of this in order to prevent juvenile crime.

Sexual Harassment And Sexual Assault In The Workplace

Table of Contents

An opening

Main discussion

The problem

The Policy’s Goal

Investigation and Advising

Critical Analysis

Ultimately,

This is an introductory statement.

In today’s society, sexual harassment and assault are a common problem. The community is negatively affected by this problem. This is an act in which someone sexually touches another without their consent or permission. In most cases, the use of coercion, force or physical violence is used to force someone into a sexual act against their will. Sexual violence can include rapes, physical abuse, sexual abuse against children or groping. The workplace is not safe for both men and women today. In Australia, sexual harassment is a very common occurrence. It is also dangerous for men to work in the office. This paper concentrates on sexual harassment, assault, and violence in the workplace. It also discusses its impact on Australians. This paper examines the appropriateness of the laws and regulations.

Our parents have taught us to respect women since childhood. This thesis paper addresses the goals and objectives for the policy, along the with employer’s liability to address sexual harassment issues at the workplace. The employers have a duty to ensure a proper workplace culture. There are many laws in Australia to protect Australians’ rights. In this article, we will examine different case examples that support our thesis statement on the policy of sexual harassment at work.

DiscussionA workplace is an area where people spend 8-12 hours a day. As a result, the employer’s and government’s duty is to ensure that the workplace is safe. Sexual assault in Australia is used to describe many different sexual offenses. In Australia, the number of sexual harassment incidents is increasing with each passing day. Even male workers in Australia can be victims of this sexual abuse. In accordance with the Australian Constitution, every Australian has the right to equal protection and equality before the law. In order to safeguard the people’s fundamental rights, the state must ensure that its laws and legislation do so. Australian legislation has been implemented to protect men, women, and children from sexual assaults and harassment. The Australian government has also implemented a number of policies to help reduce the incidence of this type of crime. All these topics must be discussed in detail.

The issueSexual abuse and sexual harassment have different meanings. The Sex Discrimination Act of 1984 (Cth), provides a definition for the term sexual harassing. Sexual harassment refers to unwanted sexual conduct that is intimidating, humiliating, and insulting. Most importantly, it’s against the law. Sexual harassment has different effects on people. The harassment can be verbal, written, online or physical. Sexual discrimination is committed if the harassment occurs in a school, college or university. Sexual harassment includes:

If you touch someone, or make physical contact with them without their consent.

Making comments that are sexually innuendo-laden;

The request to have a relationship with a woman or for sexual favors.

Staring in an inappropriate way

Displaying offensive materials

Making sexual gestures or movements with the body;

Making jokes about sexual issues

When someone asks about a person’s sexuality;

Insulting someone with sexual or offensive comments

Committing offenses that can be considered criminal offences, such exposing private body parts, sexually assaulting someone, or forcing them to watch pornography.

Sexual harassment can often turn into assault. Sexual assault is when someone sexually harasses another, causing them to feel pain, shame, humiliation and fear. According to a number of psychiatrists who treat sexual harassment, the victim may develop mental disorders such as:

Feeling stressed, depressed or upset;

Refrain from attending social events

Self-confidence is low and lack of self-esteem.

Headaches, insomnia, and other physical anxieties;

Unable or unwilling to concentrate.

Sexual assault is the act of a person sexually touching another person to move in an unnatural way without their consent or permission. A sexual assault occurs when someone touches another person in an inappropriate way without his or her consent. In such cases, coercion is often involved, along with undue force and physical pressure. Sexual violence includes:

Rape;

Child sexual abuse;

The physical torture of groping.

Both oral and Anal penetration can be considered as rape. For rape to be considered, penetration must occur. Sexual assaults do not always involve the perpetrators pursuing sexual pleasure. It is also possible to do it in order for someone to be controlled. Sexual harassment is less serious than assault, but the victim does not bear any responsibility. Sexual assault is a subject that has many myths. Sexual assault is not limited to women. Both men and women may be victims. A person who has been sexually assaulted may suffer from mental problems such as:

Shock followed by denial

Fear of death

Silence;

Anxiety;

Depression;

Swings in mood;

Nightmares and flashbacks

Isolation;

Low self-esteem, low confidence;

Suicide attempts are a common occurrence.

Both issues have a significant negative impact on Australia’s commercial and civil aspects. The Australian Human Rights Commission, which was established in 2002, has conducted a survey of sexual harassment and violence every five-years. This survey provides an overview on recent trends, including the frequency at which sexual harassment or assaults occurred in Australia’s workplaces and communities. A 2016 survey by the Australian Bureau of Statistics revealed that 1 in 2 women and 1 in 4 men were sexually harassed in their lifetime. In the study, it was also revealed that younger generations are most likely to experience sexual harassment. In order to reflect the’me-too’ movement, this year’s survey changed its method and introduced an online review for the first time.

Australia has taken a number of steps to prevent sexual harassment at work. In this respect, the government has issued several policies. Because it’s a growing problem in Australia, the employer must take all necessary steps to prevent it. This means that employers must take proactive measures to prevent sexual harassment and assault. The employer must also respond to harassment that occurs in the workplace. A sexual assault or harassment may be attributed to an employer if, under the Sex Discrimination Act (1984) (Cth), they failed to take all the steps necessary to prevent it from taking place in the work environment. Act does not define all steps to be taken and they vary by workplace.

Despite all efforts to stop sexual harassments and violence, incidents like these still occur in the office. Employers can make a policy against sexual harassment and implement it effectively. They should also monitor the effectiveness of this policy. Employers and management must communicate to employees the fact that this type of behavior is not tolerated in the workplace. Employers can implement a zero tolerance policy to stop this. The zero-tolerance policy was supported by many authors. It has been observed that employees are more likely to maintain a proper workplace culture because they fear losing their job. A written policy will not prevent sexual harassment and assault. It is important to implement the policy through communication and education.

Many authors agree that it’s important to properly write a workplace harassment policy to avoid the problem. Many employers include the provisions of general harassment in their sexual harassment policies. In general, widespread harassment can be harassment based on race, gender or sexuality, caste, religion, or religious beliefs. Some employers consider it essential to have separate policies that address sexual assault and harassment. Employers should follow these rules when writing a policy on sexual harassment, for example:

The system should be introduced in a formal meeting with all employees present.

The policy must be endorsed by the CEO of the company or their representative.

The policy needs to be written simply in English.

It is important that the language used by employers be simple and clear.

The system is displayed on an announcement board.

Employees must receive a copy in their mail ID.

All employees must sign and acknowledge the policy.

A policy against sexual harassment should include the following elements:

The policy statement must be powerful and clearly state the organization’s position on sexual harassment.

The company’s objectives must be outlined;

You must define sexual harassment.

The policy should explain which behaviors are not sexual harassment.

What happens if there is a breach?

It is also important to know the goals of sexual harassment and assault policy. Goals are:

Create a workplace that is free of sexual harassment and assault, and in which every employee, member and worker receives respect and dignity.

Develop a program of training and strategies to raise awareness among employees about their rights.

All complaints should be treated with fairness, confidentiality, and sensitivity.

Protect yourself from all forms of victimization.

Promote appropriate conduct.

Employers can reduce sexual harassment in the workplace by taking these steps.

Research and RecommendationThe Government of Australia has passed several Acts to address sexual assault and harassment at work and in the community. The Sexual Discrimination Act, 1964 (Cth), section 28A, defines sexual harassment. Section 106 explained the vicarious liabilities of employers. Recenty the Victoria Bar Association has published a Policy against Sexual Harassment. This policy is effective from the 1st of July 2018. The policy is designed to ensure that sexual harassment and assault are not tolerated in the workplace. It also aims at treating every complaint with fairness, confidentiality, and sensitivity.

These laws, legislation and policies have been praised by many scholars for their ability to reduce sexual harassment in the workplace. However, procedures, legislation and regulation need to be checked and modified from time-to-time. These laws and regulations prescribed punishments for those who commit these crimes. It is possible to reduce sexual harassment by implementing a zero tolerance policy. Losing a job in today’s economy can be devastating. According to many scholars, an employer can reduce sexual assaults by following the five steps.

Get high-standard management support from CEO and senior management representatives;

Write and implement an anti-sexual harassment policy;

You should provide all employees with a comprehensive training program and a clear message about sexual harassment.

Encourage the administration to adopt appropriate behaviors;

Last but not least, create an environment that is positive at work.

Employers can also install CCTV cameras in the workplace to keep track of their employees. The system will allow the organization to monitor the employees and reduce the chances of harassment. The management should control employee’s use of email and computer as sexually explicit material can be transmitted via the internet.

Many authors argued that policies play a major role in reducing sexual harassment and violence at work. The policies’ goals are effective in reducing harassment. Aside from policies, employers are equally important in reducing sexual harassing. Shiels Pty Limited (2000) decision stated that the employer has a responsibility to educate all of its employees about sexual harassment. In McAlister Vs. SEQ Aboriginal Corporation for Legal Services, (2002), the respondent, a lawyer, sexually harassed an employer’s client. The employer warned the respondent several times about this. The court found that the employer had not been vicariously responsible because it took all steps necessary to prevent sexual harassment. The Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal stated that the writing of a policy was not enough. It is the responsibility of the employer also to communicate to employees the policies and to put them into practice. The court of Evans vs. Lee (1996) upheld its decision that employers are required to provide trainings regarding sexual harassment at a specific interval. If an employer hasn’t organized any training in the last few years and a sexual harassment incident happens within the company, the employer may be held responsible. Writing a policy does not suffice. It is the employer’s responsibility to implement this policy.

ConclusionFrom all the discussion, we can conclude that it is not easy to reduce sexual harassments or assaults at work. This is a complex issue. To eliminate workplace violence, legislation and the government must take action. The governments have a duty to pass laws that prohibit offenders. It is important that the punishments are severe so people will think twice about committing these crimes. Employers and managers of organizations are also responsible for taking the necessary steps to reduce the possibility of sexual harassment. It is important to have a policy to reduce crime. However, it must be effectively implemented by employers. These steps will help reduce the incidence of sexual harassment in Australia.

Presence Of Cultural Appropriation During The Harlem Renaissance 

The Roaring Twenty’s are synonymous with their flashy, flamboyant lifestyle. But the dark side of this period is frequently ignored. Dictionary.com defines cultural as “the act or appropriation of elements from an outside culture (often a minority) without understanding the context and culture of that culture”. Cultural appropriation has the disadvantage that it allows the offender to reap the benefits of desirable aspects of a minority culture, without experiencing the hardships of the culture’s people. Harlem Renaissance began with the Great Migration of African Americans who moved from Jim Crow South to the North, and more specifically Harlem in New York. Its historical significance is linked to the “New Negro”, an expression of the new black independence and self-expression. The whites who lived during the Harlem Renaissance openly accepted “New Negro culture” but didn’t advocate as much for the blacks that contributed to the arts, music, and literature of society. The north wasn’t as good as it was portrayed, even though blacks fled the racist south.

Historians tend to make it out to be a dramatic change. While whites indulged in African American culture, they still had a paternalistic view of blacks. Whites made sure that blacks remained at the bottom of society during a period when they were achieving social advancements. Whites accepted every aspect of New Negro’s cultural heritage except for New Negro. The Harlem Renaissance was a time when the white people embraced the new black culture.

Harlem Renaissance Blacks contributed greatly to the arts, including music, literature, and theatre. Before the Great Migration, African Americans weren’t recognized for their artistic or creative abilities. These black writers, musicians, and artists were not only renowned in Harlem after the migration but also around the globe. The white ignorance about the black creative capabilities was the main reason for the recognition. Blacks’ physical traits were used to categorize them; their heights, their strengths, and, sadly, even genetics. It was as though they were genetically-modified cattle. It was not intentional for whites of that time to mentally train themselves to only see the black face. Black people’s abilities were not recognized because they were viewed only as their body.

Harlem Renaissance brought about no changes in black culture. Jazz remained the main music genre, writers continued writing the same books, and artists were true to themselves. African Americans were creating jazz and the blues as early as 1800. William Henry Johnson’s art was a representation of everyday life and landscapes. This style dates all the way back the 12th century. Langston Hughes wrote over 30 works of literature, but “The Negro Speaks of Rivers” is his most well-known. It was published in the early years of the Harlem Renaissance, 1921. It was the fact that black talent was now on display, and no one could deny how talented these people were. The sudden success of black works confirms the belief that appreciation for them was just a trend. The whites did not appreciate the culture but rather capitalized on its popularity.

It is possible to argue that the blacks are now being recognized in a large way, and this alone would be a great accomplishment. The blacks of Harlem seized Harlem’s economic and socio-political freedoms. If these people were white, they would not have been considered accomplishments, but rather the normality of an entertainer with talent. “For a first, African Americans…were acknowledged for their contributions …”. In other words, the credit given to blacks was not more than they have ever received before. It was for the very FIRST time. It shouldn’t depend on the race of someone to determine if they get credit for being great. It should always be about their talent. It is disingenuous to say that the minority is entitled to credit simply because of their talent. Black excellence is not a favor. That idea exposes the paternalistic outlook that plagued Harlem Renaissance.

White people’s dissatisfaction with blacks was as deep as their love of black culture. Harlem’s white community did everything possible to keep blacks out of their neighborhood during the Great Migration. After failing to stop African Americans, the whites of Harlem moved out. It’s ironic how the local community embraced the artistic skills of blacks upon their arrival. Ironically, the people who had created fear in the community were the ones that brought joy and entertainment to the community.

Jazz music was very popular in Harlem. The black culture was centered around jazz. This is a style of spontaneity, adaptation and adaptability. It is a genre that relies on spontaneity and adaptation. It was a representation of blackness; an expression of identity. The whites didn’t understand the significance of Jazz and instead viewed it as a capitalist form. Cotton Club is the best example of black exploiting. The Cotton Club was a club where blacks would perform exclusively for white audiences. Dorsey called it “a form or entertainment for the whites” and said that “white downtowners would flock Harlem, to experience the primitive, without having go to Africa.” Black people were only allowed to hold positions of service in order to emphasize the superiority of whites. Blacks fled slavery to escape to the North and work as servants. Whites used the culture of blacks as capital, even if they did not understand it.

It is possible that the opposition will claim that blacks were not only exploited by whites but also funded. You can cite the work of white patrons like W.E.B. Du Bois. Some people helped fund blacks’ success but the majority did exactly the opposite. They benefited from their success. As a result, there were so few people who helped black people to succeed that they went down as heroic heroes in history. Black people were treated as inferiors by whites.

Harlem is a place where cultural appropriation has been demonstrated. Whites embraced cultures they knew nothing about and did not respect. This research reveals a refined form of racism. It also aims to educate readers on an important part of history. While circumstances can change, they do not stop history from repeating itself. The society must be educated about issues that could very likely reoccur. It is not just whites versus blacks that appropriate culture. This term is applicable to all cultures and ethnicities. The most important thing is to learn how to accept others’ different backgrounds and appreciate them without trying too hard. It is important to understand that heritage isn’t a “fad” or a way of life. It is a rich tradition with a deep meaning, which is difficult to understand without being educated. When everyone within a society is able to respect and appreciate the cultures of others, without feeling that they are required to accept them as their own, then racial unity will emerge. Cultural appreciation is a counter-measure to appropriation. Understanding and respecting other cultures will come from a true appreciation of one’s own.

Wendigo: A Monster From Native American Tales And Legends

Table of Contents

Wendigo: The origin and history of this terrifying creature

The beast takes on a horrendous physical form

Wendigos get more deadly as they age

A Wendigo and Medicine man killed 14 people he believed were possessed by the Beast

Wendigo is a real psychological disorder

Wendigos have been featured in many traditional tales, and they are a common monster. The Wendigo, a demonic spirit or beast that eats humans, is said to have the power to curse and possess people. Native American legends have spoken about terrifying things that the Wendigo can do, making this one of history’s most bizarre and terrifying monsters.

This savage creature is considered to be the world’s first zombie. This wild creature is regarded as the world’s original zombie. What you should know about Wendigo and its history, origin, and origin are listed below.

The origin and history of Wendigo is terrifying. A native American tribe named Algonquians first circulated the legend. The Wendigo has been described by members of this tribe as an evil spirit capable of possessing humans. In extreme cases it can even turn into a human. The evil spirit would then control the victims’ minds, making them violent, cold-hearted and susceptible to evil.

Wendigo will possess anyone who cannibalizes, even in a desperate attempt to survive during the cold winter months. This evil entity can also take over anyone with feelings of jealousy, greed, or any other corrupt intention. This ancient creature can turn any human into a zombie that eats flesh.

Wendigo has supernatural powers that are terrifying. It is a powerful, cold-calculating creature that can take on the appearance of a spirit or humanoid. Wendigos are unnaturally strong, large and fast. They have super-sharp perceptions and incredible endurance. Humans have a very slim chance of surviving an encounter with a Wendigo.

It can hunt in any climate, thanks to its years of scavenging humans around the globe. Wendigo will stalk its prey for hours and lure victims into danger by mimicking their voices. It likes to drive people into the wild, where it can either possess or devour their flesh.

The Beast can take on a horrible and putrid physical form. Although the Wendigo takes spirit forms in many cultures, Native American tribes thought it could also appear as a beast. The beast’s spirit could also be used to infect a person who was deemed greedy, or had violated the taboo against eating human flesh. The creature would turn its victims into Wendigos and force them to crave human flesh. The beast is described as an emaciated, gaunt creature with a stag-skull head and eyes set deeply into the sockets. Wendigo can also grow to be a giant in some versions. The Wendigo, which is also tall and fragile, but impossibly powerful, emits a foul stench as its body decomposes.

According to legend, the Wendigo never stops eating. Its size grows proportionally to that of the human it has just eaten. Wendigos are the epitome of greed and gluttony. It constantly eats human flesh but never feels satisfied. Wendigos are driven by hunger, and will eat until they’re full. Due to this frightening nature, it appears that the beast is always starving despite its voracious consumption of humans.

Wendigo has a terrifying way of taking over its victim. The creature begins by slowly tormenting the victim, gradually taking over their mind and body. Some people say that the creature first induces strange smells which the victim alone can detect. The creature then proceeds to induce gruesome dreams, robbing the victims of their sanity until they no longer have a sense reality. After this, victims experience a burning feeling that travels down their legs, then their feet. It gets worse until the pain becomes unbearable. They are then forced to strip off and run naked through the forest while screaming. A person who has been afflicted by Wendigo and lost themselves in the woods is never seen ever again. Those who manage to return to civilisation after Wendigo disease are usually completely insane.

According to Native American tales, the Wendigo grows stronger as it ages. It will become stronger and more powerful depending on how long it has been around. The creature becomes more violent, has a greater tendency to violence, is stronger, has a higher endurance level, and is more malevolent. The older a Wendigo becomes, the better it is able to manipulate other creatures to perform its will. It can also command the attack of other predators. With age, a Wendigo gains in speed and healing ability.

It’s true that while its effect on people has diminished, in the past it had such an impact that it would sometimes be blamed as the culprit of terrible crimes. Swift Runner – a former Hudson Bay Company employee – became possessed in 1878 by a sudden desire to butcher all of his family members. Authorities found his wife, five children and mutilated bodies and arrested him. Swift admitted to killing and eating his family members, but claimed he only did it because he was possessed. Swift, who was unable to even prove the existence of this creature or to bring it before a judge, was executed by the Fort Saskatchewan authorities.

The ancient tribes held sacred dances and rituals to prevent the Wendigo’s curse from affecting them and their people. They also reminded people of the dangers they faced and encouraged them to work together to survive. This was done to warn people about the danger the Wendigo poses, and to prevent them from having evil thoughts like eating other humans or killing others. These ceremonies are more common in times when there is famine or harsh weather.

A Wendigo Medicine man and Wendigo Killer killed 14 people who he thought were possessed by The Beast. Jack Fiddler’s case is a terrible example of Wendigo. He and his brother were arrested by the Canadian authorities for killing 14 people. Jack told the authorities that he had killed 14 people because they were Wendigos. He said he acted for their benefit and the good of the entire community. Jack was a powerful healer who was believed by many to possess immense powers. This included the ability of killing Wendigos. That’s why he could get away so easily with all the murders. However,

Jack could not escape long arms of law. Unluckily, he took his own life shortly after being arrested, before he even had the chance to be tried. Joseph, Joseph’s brother was convicted of murder and sentenced for death. Joseph received a pardon three days prior to his execution. The community had pleaded with him for release and interceded.

Wendigo psychosis, a real mental disorder, is named after the mythical creature. The condition occurs when someone develops an intense desire to consume human flesh. It is not like the mythology in which people eat flesh to survive. Instead, they are compelled to consume it even though they have other food options.

The Importance Of Socialization And Culture In Social Control

The result of constant interactions between people is society. The basis of the society is the communication and everyday interactions between individuals. These daily interactions, which we refer to as socialization, are a long-term process in which people learn about social norms. Through these interactions, societal rules are created that determine what actions are considered acceptable or unacceptable. These societal rules created by interactions between others are the strongest reason I can think of to explain social life.

Socialization occurs as a result of pressure from society. It is through this process that people acquire the values, beliefs, and norms which form their culture. Primary socialization occurs in early social institutions such as the family or school. These norms are instilled into children at an early age to help them become integrated into the society. Socialization can have the greatest influence on society’s control of a person in early childhood. The learned behaviors of key authority figures, such as teachers and parents, can have a lasting impact on a person’s identity. They begin to learn about the people in power and how they should behave to avoid any negative consequences.

Early socialization helps people develop their own unique identity and personality based upon the norms of learned behavior. Secondary socialization is a way to reinforce these behaviours. It helps people learn about specific roles, attitudes and norms that are associated with adult learning. The secondary socialization builds on the knowledge they have already acquired from their previous socialization. It also helps them to form an identity that is based around these learned behaviors. As people develop identities over the course of their lives, their socialization influences them in every way.

Socialization requires that people actively participate in social interactions. They must also constantly observe the reactions of others to their actions and make adjustments based upon those reactions. The subtlest cues like facial expressions can have a big impact on behaviour. Instant feedback from others is an excellent indicator of what they find acceptable and unacceptable. These small clues are essential when building relationships and creating peer groups of people who share similar interests, characteristics and preferences. Group members influence the behaviour and interests of individuals in these peer groups. This emulates social control methods that were explained earlier.

But when explaining the concept of social control, we must also consider other viewpoints that influence how people behave and are influenced by their social power. Medical control, which is the result of medicalization in society as a whole, is one of the key factors of social control. Michel Foucault argues that medicalization, as a form social control, is used to stigmatize certain populations and label them as requiring the intervention of authorities. Medical social control is the way medicine reinforces social norms through medical means. In terms of their own health, people will listen more to professionals who have had years of education. Doctors have immense power due to the high value of health. It is reinforced by the fact that medical surveillance done in the interest of public safety and health results in police and legal policies. This means that people will alter their behavior and actions when a doctor recommends it and if a policy deems ‘deviant’ behaviour. Due to the fact that medical social controls can reach individuals at a much larger scale, socialization is not able.

Socialization, in my opinion, is the key factor to explain social control. This is because early socialization techniques are used to influence a person from the micro level of subtle cues during everyday interactions up to the large scale of their entire identity.

The Unconventional Representation Of Masculinity In The “Drummer Boy Of Shiloh”

Ray Bradbury’s 1960 novel The Drummer Boy of Shiloh tells the story of an actual drummer boy who took part in the Battle of Shiloh. This short story depicts the hardships that war brought to a 14-year old boy. The masculinity of the story replaces the violence, grief and other emotions that are usually portrayed in war stories. The Drummer Boy of Shiloh explores masculinity from all angles, distancing it from the stereotypical masculine traits of bravery and strength. The Drummer Boy of Shiloh introduces the concept of masculinity by using symbolism and characterization of its two main characters.

Joby is the fourteen-year old protagonist in The Drummer Boy Shiloh. He is depicted as a scared, emotional boy, at the beginning. Joby represents the fear that many soldiers feel on the eve of a war. Bradbury shows emotion through the innocence and youth of a young boy, but not in the way we are used to seeing it from masculine figures. Joby may not be a physical man, but he’s expected to have stereotypical masculine characteristics because he lives in a world of war. Joby’s crying is the first time the masculinity theme is introduced in the story. On discovering Joby, the General said “Here is a young soldier crying just before a fight.” Good. “Get over it.” (l.52). This complete disregard for emotion is often associated with masculinity. Joby contrasts with the soldiers who can’t sleep because they have romantic nightmares about battles not yet fought (l.15). Joby returns his drum to its original position at the end. The story shows the development of the protagonist. Joby’s lack of courage at the beginning is reflected in this act.

The Drummer Boy of Shiloh’s General questions masculinity stereotypes in a way that is original. Bradbury introduces the character as being very masculine. Bradbury says, “He smelled of ginger tobacco and salt sweat. He walked in the earth.” (l.62). As Joby and the General continue their conversation, Bradbury shows that he not only has all of the stereotypical masculine traits, but also some stereotypically womanly ones. I did that last night.” Joby views the General as very masculine despite all the support he has shown. Bradbury blurs gender lines and intertwines the two to create a very unique atmosphere. With this unconventional portrayal, Bradbury gives the audience an alternative interpretation of all men who have fought and died in wars.

The Drummerboy Of Shiloh, a story set in an orchard of peaches. In Western cultures, peaches represent youth and purity, both of which Joby embodies. The protagonist wakes up when a pit from a ripe peach strikes his drum. He was so terrified that he “turned the drum over, and its large lunar face peered at him every time he opened his eye.” (l.7). This could mean that Joby is afraid of the instrument and would rather not have any contact with it. Joby doesn’t have any weapons or shields. Joby’s fear of the drum isn’t a direct reaction to it, but rather the danger that the instrument will bring him into the world of violence and sacrifice. The instrument is a symbol of Joby’s fear. It was “worse that a child’s toy, destined to be abused tomorrow or someday much too soon.” The drum was turned up to the sky after Joby and the general exchanged words. (l.160). This represents the character’s growth throughout the entire story. It can be seen as a sign of courage and heroism, because it shows the character is ready for war. The Drummer Boy Of Shiloh takes place in a period of violence and conflict. The feminine peach blossoms contrast with the masculine scene. Bradbury employs irony to create a peaceful scene the night prior to a day filled with battle. This peaceful environment is presented knowing that the violence of the next day will destroy it. The use of masculine features is meant to imply that wars are for men.

The Drummer Boy of Shiloh portrays a masculinity unconventional, which is uncommon in war stories. Bradbury shows that men don’t have to exhibit cliche masculine characteristics to be a man. This allows more fluidity in the relationship between masculinity and femininity.